PHP/Rails to iOS, what are .h and .m files?

Posted: January 21st, 2012 | Author: | Filed under: iOS | 9 Comments »
This entry is part 3 of 4 in the series iOS Beginner blog series

Since I began my iOS beginner blog series, I have been receiving tremendous feedback and appreciation from readers all over the world and lots of encouragement for me to continue with the series.

I started realizing that there are so many more developers out there who are struggling with iOS than I originally thought. So allow me to make my point very clear that this blog series is meant for beginners, sometimes certain statements might not be technically correct, but I intentionally wrote them in a certain way so as to simplify the thought process for new readers. Those ‘mistakes’ will not do any harm, as long as you keep progressing, the more advanced concepts will help you redefine those yourselves. In this post, I will make some of those in the process of explaining the concepts. This post is a highly simplified and short explanation for absolute begineer who have not touched any compiled language before iOS development.

The big question, unanswered

Just like you, I stumbled right at the first step of understanding iOS source code. With no background in compiled languages, I can’t really tell what are the purposes of different files. Java programmer would have no problem understanding all the declarations like @interface, @protocol, @implementation. (Don’t worry, my next post will talk about these in more details). PHP programmers, well, everything ends with .php

Unfortunately, the question “What are .h and .m files?” that I seeked is too fundamental that seasoned developers don’t really bother answering. I found some really short answers for this question here and here but they didn’t really help me much.

There are many many more questions like this along my journey of learning iOS. Until now I’m still puzzled why there aren’t many people that could help guiding beginners in the transition from web languages to compiled Objective-C language like this. StackOverflow is an excellent repository of even weirdest questions, but there ain’t many basic concepts explained well. Having to gone through the pain, now I am hoping to demystify some of these concepts for the absolute noobs like I was.

So what are .h and .m files?

.h file is header file, .m file contains the implementation

Each class in Objective C, usually made up by one .h file and one .m file.

The .h files are header files. It is called header file because it only contains the ‘head’ or a class, in other words, all the properties and functions that any other outside class should know about, the ‘public face’ of a class. It does not contain implementation logics at all.

On the other hand, .m file contains all the implementation details of all the functions declared in .h and more. It also contains declaration and implementation of private functions that outside classes cannot use, or should not care about.

How to ‘use’ these files, a simplified perspective

You got yourself a pair of .h and .m files, downloaded from Internet or someone send it to you and tell you to figure it out by yourself, either way you only have the files and no documentation. So you wonder where to start to get a big picture of what it does. This happens more often than you think. As a more seasoned developer now, I still find myself downloading open source projects and look at how some of the classes are implemented all the time, mostly from cocoacontrols.

First, you need to tell the names and parameters of functions. This is where my previous post came in very handy.
Secondly, you should start to *only* look at the .h file. Because this file contains the public interfaces of a class that the writer wants others to know. There are a lot of things inside a .h file but most important are the functions. They look like these:

// Convenience constructor
+ (id)requestWithURL:(NSURL *)newURL;
+ (id)requestWithURL:(NSURL *)newURL usingCache:(id <ASICacheDelegate>)cache;
+ (id)requestWithURL:(NSURL *)newURL usingCache:(id <ASICacheDelegate>)cache andCachePolicy:(ASICachePolicy)policy;
 
// Run a request synchronously, and return control when the request completes or fails
- (void)startSynchronous;
 
// Run request in the background
- (void)startAsynchronous;
 
// Clears all delegates and blocks, then cancels the request
- (void)clearDelegatesAndCancel;

This is taken direct from ASIHTTPRequest network library that I used for my latest projects.
And as you can probably tell, the snippet describes how to create a connect, start it and then stop it. It is pretty much all the basics that you need to make use of the class. Luckily a lot of library developers out there do include one-line comments like this in their public interface, they are really useful.

You only need to look at .m files if you want to understand or copy the implementation of the classes.

The import statements

At the beginning of all the files, you will need to import the .h files that you are working with. This is because Object-C is a compiled language, you need to tell the compiler what are the objects that you will be working with, more importantly the compiler need to know the exact interfaces available in those files in order to compile them in your current class. If you manage to compile successfully code that contains a call to a mis-spelt function name, your app will crash! (There are ways to do this).

At this point, you only need to know that whenever you need to call external classes, you need to import their .h files.


So now you can walk to your nearest iOS noob friend and pretend that you know everything about the class that he is working on just by looking at the .h file and quoting some function names. What’s cooler is that you can even ask why not declare them slightly different… that is before he shoots you down with questions you don’t even understand.

You can now subscribe to my blog using the form on the right column. Thanks for reading, do share it with your fellow iOS coder too.


<< PHP to Objective C, where the f**k are parameters?Understanding M-VC in iOS >>

  • YJ

    Hey Kent,

    Joining in the chorus of appreciation for this topic — should be useful for students in some classes I’ll be teaching :)

    I found it fairly interesting when you said you had no idea how .h and .m files work, and realised it’s a bit of a generational thing — many computer science majors before you probably cut their teeth entirely on compiled languages, and web programming must have come pretty naturally to these folks (at least, that was the case for me). So maybe those are the people who are on Stack Overflow going “WTF” at questions asking what .h and .m files are.

    Seems this trend will continue, what with Codecademy, CS101-class and Khan Academy all advocating JavaScript as a first language. I’m curious: Did you really not do _any_ compiled language work for your degree?

    • Kent Nguyen

      A simple reply is yes, I did not have any experience with compiled languages. I had brief experience with Java (J2EE & JSP) for both my diploma and degree. However, somehow my brain is wired not to absorb it after I took the tests, unlike other languages. Again, the compiling process is not really obvious in this case.

      I started learning programming very early, since I was about 13-14. Until iOS, I have never considered writing codes that need to be compiled, that is to create desktop apps, mobile apps. Web programming has always been in my best interest.

      • Renea Fischer

        I mirror these statements. I’ve been coding since the early Atari’s came out and I hacked them. Yet, I’ve never worked with complied languages in rails before and I cant believe I never tried. The files themselves stumped me and I was unsure of what to do for fear of breaking the clients code when he just wants me to hack it and add a couple of buttons. Thank you fr a clear explanation of things.

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  • Zhao

    Dear OP,

     Thanks for your considerate effort for making this thread, I personally find it very useful.  I don’t speak for the others but I really think this is the spirit writing beginning tutorials.

    Thanks a lot!
    Zhao

  • Lineshvalayil

    Thanks a lot

  • Hey Kent,

    I’m an Actionscript developer making the jump to Obj C. I really appreciate the scope and tone of your descriptions. It’s helped tremendously.

    Thanks for taking the time.
    N

  • jimmy

    So basic yet such a big missing piece of all basic tutorials

  • gill

    thanks for such help